Voluntary vs. obligatory PTAs (German, French, Swedish approach)

Three approaches which are carried out in distinct national legal contexts are examined.

1. French approach – statutory MPTAs

French MPTAIn France, MPTAs have been created as statutory bodies. Their boundaries and rules of cooperation are set in law.

Financing is now provided by grants received from the government. Previously, they had the freedom to set up special taxes (up to an established maximum rate).