Looking at policy integration across different levels of administration.
3. Example: Electric mobility in Utrecht, the Netherlands
Another example of policy
integration across levels of authority (EU, national and local) can be
found with electric mobility in the Netherlands.
city of Utrecht encourages the use of bicycles and public transport to
reduce greenhouse gases, but is also interested in making the remaining
motorised vehicles as clean as possible. To this end, the promotional
programme Utrecht Electric was developed. The programme supports the use of electric vehicles by:
- creating a network of charging points
- cooperating with businesses and others in their efforts to promote electric mobility
- greening the municipality's own fleet
Supportive policy exists at the national level in the Netherlands in the form of:
- subsidies for the purchase of electric light-duty commercial vehicles and taxis
- tax incentives for those who lease electric vehicles
- motor vehicle tax exemptions for all fuel-efficient cars (initially in place until 2014 and subsequently extended to the end of 2015, with a review planned at that time)
in the Netherlands has shown that the facilitating role of the local
level is crucial, whereas the national level plays an important
stimulation role through subsidies and incentives. Through its directives (particularly with regard to local air quality), the EU level creates the impetus for local action, primarily by obliging local
authorities to take action on local transport emissions..
these three levels of policy are complementary in many ways, there are
still challenges. For example, national level actors note that it is
difficult to adjust policies because local actors claim to need a
tailor-made framework whereas the national level would prefer a
country-wide policy. On the other hand, frequent changes in policy
create difficulties for business since industry bases investment
decisions on existing programmes and policies, meaning changes can be
costly for them. All of these aspects need to be taken into
consideration when considering new policy initiatives.