1. Identify the different services provided within the public transport system.
Do they have different quality standards?
Yes, there are different standards in quality between public transport services in Lisbon. For example, the Railway System (CP) has high frequency and availability, contrasting to suburban buses (Transportes Sul do Tejo, and others) and some boat services (Transtejo). The Metro system (Metropolitano de Lisboa) has very good infrastructure and trains but is getting worse when it comes to frequency and travel times. As for Buses in central Lisbon (Carris), travel times and frequency are highly affected by congestion and the infrastructure is considerably heterogeneous trhoughout the city.
Do they reflect a common image towards its customers?
A recent study about transportation in Lisbon asked users to associate a word to a specific service. Here are the answers:
- Metro (Metropolitano de Lisboa): "Strike", "Crowd"
- Buses and trams (Carris): "Crowd", "Confusion", "Slow"
- Suburban buses (Transportes Sul do Tejo, and others): "Expensive", "Slow", "Congestion", "Pollution"
- Trains (CP): "Strike", "Crowd", "Fast"
The study didn't take Boats (Transtejo and Soflusa) into account.
How clear is that for non-captive users?
Non-captive users have a somehow negative view towards public transport in Lisbon. They believe PT availability is weak as well as frequency. They also think that many services should operate on late hours, especially Metro and many Bus and Tram routes. In addition, many consider to be quicker to travel by private car than public transport.
Is there physical, fare-wise or operational integration between the modes?
Yes, except for suburban buses, all other public transport services operating in Lisbon have integrated fare systems. Monthly fares contemplating all or some of the services in a single card and also a system called Zapping, simillar to London's rechargeable Oyster.
2. Identify the dedicated infrastructure existing for the different transport modes (metro, light rail, tram, bus, bicycles, pedestrians) as well as the infrastructure dedicated to its integration.
Does it reflect a priority over the car-oriented infrastructure in the city?
In Lisbon, light rail and metro have their own dedicated infrastructure. Buses and trams have some - but few- dedicated or completely separated lanes. Many trams and buses are delayed due to congestion and illegal or "second lane" parking. The same can be said for bicycles, as the cycle network is small and with several safety and connection issues. As for pedestrians, many sidewalks are filled with signs, bins and other "urban furniture" and, in some areas, are very narrow so that parking spaces can be available.
So, yes, this reflects a car-oriented infrastructure in the city.
How does that link to the existing modal split?
Car usage is very high in Lisbon, most certainly due to how easy it is to drive a car in the city. At the same time, this ease influences the quality and reliability of public transportation. If travelling by car can be made more difficult and, ate the same time, make positive changes on the PT system infrastructure, than we can expect a change on the existing modal split in Lisbon.